Document Type: Original Article
Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Division of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Japan
Atsuchi Memorial Institute of Radiology, Atsuchi Memorial Clinic PET Center, Kagoshima, Japan
Division of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan
Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze detection rates and effectiveness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program for prostate cancer in Japan, which is defined as a cancer-screening program for subjects without known cancer. It contains FDG-PET aimed at detection of cancer at an early stage with or without additional screening tests such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods: A total of 92,255 asymptomatic men underwent the FDG-PET cancer screening program. Of these, 504 cases with findings of possible prostate cancer in any screening method were analyzed.
Results: Of the 504 cases, 165 were verified as having prostate cancer. Of these, only 61 cases were detected by FDG-PET, which result in 37.0% relative sensitivity and 32.8% positive predictive value (PPV). The sensitivity of PET/computed tomography (CT) scanner was higher than that of dedicated PET (44.0% vs. 20.4%). However, the sensitivity of FDGPET was lower than that of PSA and pelvic MRI. FDG-PET did not contribute to improving the sensitivity and PPV when performed as combined screening.
Conclusion: PSA should be included in FDG-PET cancer screening programs to screen for prostate cancer.