Detection of prostate cancer by an FDG-PET cancer screening program: results from a Japanese nationwide survey

Document Type : Original Article


1 Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

2 Division of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Japan

3 Atsuchi Memorial Institute of Radiology, Atsuchi Memorial Clinic PET Center, Kagoshima, Japan

4 Division of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

5 Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan


Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze detection rates and effectiveness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program for prostate cancer in Japan, which is defined as a cancer-screening program for subjects without known cancer. It contains FDG-PET aimed at detection of cancer at an early stage with or without additional screening tests such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods: A total of 92,255 asymptomatic men underwent the FDG-PET cancer screening program. Of these, 504 cases with findings of possible prostate cancer in any screening method were analyzed.
Results: Of the 504 cases, 165 were verified as having prostate cancer. Of these, only 61 cases were detected by FDG-PET, which result in 37.0% relative sensitivity and 32.8% positive predictive value (PPV). The sensitivity of PET/computed tomography (CT) scanner was higher than that of dedicated PET (44.0% vs. 20.4%). However, the sensitivity of FDGPET was lower than that of PSA and pelvic MRI. FDG-PET did not contribute to improving the sensitivity and PPV when performed as combined screening.
Conclusion: PSA should be included in FDG-PET cancer screening programs to screen for prostate cancer.